J. Life Sci. Biomed. 6(1): 06-09, Jan 30, 2016
Life Science and Biomedicine
Phytochemicals and Antibacterial Activities of Soursop Leaf (Annona
muricata) against Edwardsiella tarda (In Vitro)
Madyasta Anggana Rarassari and Happy Nursyam Maftuch
Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia
ABSTRACT: Edwardsiella tarda is bacteria in fish caused of Edwardsiellosis disease and it was include to
plague bacteria that can harm. Edwardsiella tarda infection controlled using a natural antibacterial that is
Annona muricata. The aim of this research was to know the content of secondary metabolites in leaves of the
soursop (Annona muricata) as well as an effective solvent to extract Annona muricata to be an antibacterial
against on Edwardsiella tarda by disc diffusion method. Experimental method used in this research is
descriptive and it is based on 2 types of leaves (fresh and dried), 3 different treatment solvent (ethanol, ethyl
acetate and chloroform) and three replications. Data obtained from the study was statistically analyzed used
statistical applications, SPSS version 21.0. The results of the crude extract of dried Annona muricata is in
accordance with the results of phytochemical contained phenols, saponins, tannins and flavonoids as well as
the best use of ethyl acetate solvent to the extent of inhibition with 15:41 mm.
Key words: Antibacterial, Edwardsiella tarda, Annona muricata, Phytochemicals, Solvent
Some obstacles often encountered in aquaculture as disease. Edwardsiella tarda is bacteria in fish farming
and caused of Edwardsiellosis disease. Edwardsiellosis is a bacterial disease that is a very serious systematic
cultivation of eels (Japanese eel) in Japan and Taiwan, Japanase flounder fish and other farmed fish. In the USA,
Edwardsiella tarda caused of septicemia infectious diseases in fish channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), host and
geographic distribution. These bacteria include in fish pests and diseases of quarantine (HPIK) class II which
require high vigilance to prevent of entry and spread of this disease in Indonesia because these diseases relatively
can infect and harming quick time .
Infection control efforts by fish health management through control measures . Edwardsiella tarda
bacteria by using a natural antibacterial with environmentally friendly, one of them can use the leaves of soursop
Annona muricata. In general, according to Octavia , soursop leaves is known to contain active compounds that
are toxic, this situation allows the soursop can be used as an antibacterial compound. Upendra and Khandenwal
 stated that extracts of Annona muricata has shown antibacterial activity against in eight species of pathogenic
bacteria. The investigation clearly revealed the antibacterial properties of this plant can be used in the prevention
of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria.
The purpose of this research is to know the content of secondary metabolites in leaves of the soursop
(Annona muricata) by phytochemical test and get the kind of effective solvent to extract Annona muricata as an
antibacterial against Edwardsiella tarda by disc diffusion method.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
This study was conducted in November 2014 - January 2015 in the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases Fish
and Fishery Product Technology Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya,
Malang. Edwardsiella tarda bacterial identification was done in Fish Quarantine (Station I), Perak, Surabaya.
Extraction of the leaves of Annona muricata (fresh and dried) with multilevel maceration method (2x24
hours) using the appropriate solvent polarity in a row, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The method used in
this research was descriptive based on the experimental methods. This study consisted of 3 different treatment
solvent (ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform) and 3 replications, also used as a comparator antibiotic ampicillin
as positive control. The parameters observed in this study were the extent of inhibition (mm).
Data obtained from the results of the research statistically analyzed using statistical applications, SPSS
version 21.0. Annona muricata analyzed descriptively to phytochemical test of secondary metabolites.
To cite this paper: Anggana Rarassari M and Nursyam Maftuch H. 2016. Phytochemicals and Antibacterial Activities of Soursop Leaf (Annona muricata) against
Edwadsiella tarda (In Vitro). J. Life Sci. Biomed. 6(1): 06-09.