This work was supported by the University of Gondar, college of veterinary medicine and animal sciences.
A. Kelay participated in the planning, collecting the required articles for review and execution of the
review as a leader. A. Assefa participated in the critically revision of the manuscript for important intellectual
contents and all authors of this review paper have read and approved the final version submitted.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Radostits, M, Gay C, Blood, C and Kenneth, W. 2006. Veterinary Medicine A Text Book of The Disease of Cattle, Horses,
Sheep, Pigs and Goats. 10th ed, Baillire Tindall publisher, London, Pp: 1668-1671.
Bickhardt, K, Grocholl, G and Konig G. 1989. Glucose metabolism in different reproductive stages of sheep and with
ketosis using the intravenous glucose tolerance test. Zentralbl Veterinary Medicine A, 36:514-529.
Drackley, J, Kim, Y, Strang, B and Young, J. 1989. Metabolic responses of lactating goats to feed restriction and dietary
1, 3-butanediol. Journal of Dairy Science, 72:3204-3211.
Freetly, H and Ferrell, C. 1998. Net flux of glucose, lactate, volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen metabolites across the
portal drained viscera and liver of pregnant ewes. Journal of Animal Science, 76:3133-3145.
Andrews, A.1997. Pregnancy toxemia in the ewe and doe. Farm Animal Practice, 19:306-312.
Sargison, N. 2007. Pregnancy toxemia. In: Diseases of Sheep, 7:359-362.
Lacetera, N, Bernabucci, U, Ronchi, B and Nardone, A. 2001. Effects of subclinical pregnancy toxemia on immune
responses in sheep. Am. J. Vet. Res.; 62:1020–1024.
Marteniuk, J and Herdt, T. 1988. Pregnancy toxemia and ketosis of ewes and does. The Veterinary Clinics of North
America (Food Animal Practice), 4:307-315.
Brozos C, Mavrogianni VS and Fthenakis GC, 2011. Treatment and control of peri-parturient metabolic diseases:
pregnancy toxemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia. Vet. Clin. North American Food Animal Practice, 27 (2011), pp.
10. Rook, J. 2000. Pregnancy toxemia of ewes does and beef cows. Veterinary Clinics of North America (Food Animal Practice),
11. Kahn, C. 2005.The Merck Veterinarian Manual, 9th ed, Merck & Company, Incorporated, New Jersey, USA, Pp: 828-830.
Research in Veterinary Science, 84:286-99.
13. Pugh, D. 2002. Diseases of the gastrointestinal system. In: Sheep and Goat Medicine, 12: 69-105.
14. SILK, L. 2013. Metabolic diseases in sheep-Developments and treatment. Veterinary Times, 43, 16-19.
15. LEVALLEY, S. 2010. Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) in ewes and does. Livestock series. Management; no. 1.630.
16. Smith, M and Sherman, D.1994. Nutrition and metabolic diseases. In: Goat Medicine, 79:527-562.
17. Ford, E, Evans, J and Robinson, I. 1990. Cortisol in pregnancy toxaemia of sheep. British Veterinary Journal, 146:539-542.
18. Schlumbohm, C and Harmeyer, J. 2004. Hyperketonemia impairs glucose metabolism in pregnant and non pregnant
ewes. Journal of dairy science, 87:350-358.
19. Schlumbohm, C and Harmeyer, J. 2003. Hypocalcemia reduce endogenous glucose production in heyperketonemic
sheep. Journal of Dairy Science, 86:1953-1962.
20. Scott, P, Sargison, N, Penny, C, Pirie, R and Kelly, J. 1995. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma glucose concentration of ovine
pregnancy toxemia cases, inappetant ewes and normal ewes during late gestation. British Veterinary Journal, 151:39-44.
21. Bradford, P. 1996. Large Animal Internal Medicine, 2nd ed, University of California, Mosby, Pp: 939-940.
22. Wastney, M, Wolf, J, Bickerstafle, R.1983. Glucose turnover and hepatocyte glucose
production of starved and toxaemic pregnant sheep. Australia Journal of Biological Science, 36:71-284.
23. Burswell, J, Hadd, P and Bywater, J. 1986. Treatment of pregnancy toxemia in sheep using a concentrated oral
rehydration solution. Veterinary Record, 118:208-209.
24. Andrews, A and Wilkinson, J. 1998. Treatment of pregnancy toxemia with glucose and electrolytes Large Animal
25. Henze, P, Bickhardt, K, Fuhrmann, H and Sallmannm, H.1998. Spontaneous pregnancy toxemia in sheep and the role of
insulin. Zentralblatt Veterinary Medicine Research, 45:255-266.
26. Van, S. 2000. Pregnancy toxemia in a flock of sheep. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 217:1536.
Kelay A and Assef A. 2017. Causes, Control and Prevention Methods of Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewe: A Review. J. Life Sci. Biomed. 8(4): 69-76;