Volume 8 (1); January 25, 2018 [Booklet]
Chromosomal Disorders and Aberrant DNA Methylation as Early Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk in Young Women.
Zakirova LT, Alimkhodjaeva LT and Kadyrova DA.
J. Life Sci. Biomed., 8(1): 01-05, 2018; pii:S225199391800001-8
Genetic instability is an early and constant characteristic of tumor cells. Chromosomal aberrations and epigenetic anomalies are the factors leading to genomic instability. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chromosomal disorders and aberrant DNA methylation as strong biomarkers in early diagnostics of breast cancer in young women. The research was conducted in 20 patients, and involved 15 young females with breast cancer at stages T2-4N0-3MO (histologically confirmed). Cytogenetic tests of lymphocytes of females with breast cancer (BC) revealed chromosomal abnormalities expressing as deletions, iso-locus deletion of chromosomes and gaps. Activity of the DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase) in BC is shown to rise up to 58%, in comparison with the normal indexes. Conclusion: Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes in BC women has revealed chromosomal abnormalities in the form of deletions, isolation of chromosome deletions and gaps. It has been shown that in BC, the activity of DNA methyltransferase is increased by 58%, compared with the normal indexes.
Keywords: Chromosomal aberrations, DNA methyltransferase, Breast cancer, Early diagnosis, Iso-locus deletion, Epigenetic control, DNA methylation, Histone modifications
Endoscopic Interventions in Patients with External Biliary Fistulas Caused by Iatrogenic Injuries of Biliary Tracts.
J. Life Sci. Biomed., 8(1): 06-09, 2018; pii:S225199391800002-8
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and severity as well as to define the best treatment option for patients with iatrogenic injuries. The article presents the analysis of surgical treatment of 49 patients with external biliary fistulas (EBFs) caused by iatrogenic injuries of anhepatic bile-ducts. The causes of strictures and external biliary fistulas formation were intra-operative injuries during cholecystectomy, gastric resection and echinococcectomy. Successful results were achieved in 43 (87.6%) cases using endoscopic transpapillary elimination of external biliary fistulas. Endoscopic manipulations promote the relief of clinical manifestations of CBD cicatrical stricture and provide the choice of the optimal reconstructive surgery.
Keywords: Hepatic Bile Ducts, External Biliary Fistula, Iatrogenic Injuries, Cicatrical Strictures, Diagnostics, Treatment.
Antioxidant Activity of Protein Fractions Derived from Acrochaetium sp. (Rhodophyta) Enzymatic Hydrolysates.
Windarto S, Nursyam H, Hsu J-L, Lee M-Ch.
J. Life Sci. Biomed., 8(1): 10-18, 2018; pii:S225199391800003-8
Natural antioxidants are helpful in the prevention of human diseases. The objective of this study is to isolate the potential protein fractions from Acrochaetium sp. as an antioxidant. Fractions were obtained by proteolytic digestion using α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, trypsin, thermolysin individually and in combination of two enzymes, then centrifuged using 3 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafiltration membrane and fractionated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) assay was used to measure the antioxidant activity. Result showed that thermolysin hydrolysate and the combination of trypsin-thermolysin hydrolysates had the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other hydrolysates with IC50 value of 1.48±0.92 mg/mL and 1.37±0.84 mg/mL after fractionated using 3 kDa MWCO ultrafiltration membrane. Fractionation using RP-HPLC resulted fraction 7 obtained from thermolysin hydrolysates showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value 0.58±0.56 mg/mL and fraction I obtained from trypsin-thermolysin hydrolysates showed the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value 0.38±0.33 mg/mL. The protein fractions from Acrochaetium sp. hydrolysates as antioxidant still has not been reported previously, therefore it can indicated as a potential therapeutic source for reducing oxidative stress.
Keywords: Acrochaetium sp., Antioxidant, DPPH, Enzymatic hydrolysates, Fractions, RP-HPLC
Modified Radical Abdominal Trachelectomy in Cervical Cancer in Young Women.
J. Life Sci. Biomed., 8(1): 19-23, 2018; pii:S225199391800004-8
A modification of traditional fertility-sparing abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) has been developed to reduce the opportunity for intra-operative injuries to occur through better management of the surgical field. The technique is similar to the standard abdominal radical trachelectomy. The ART modification developed by us enables to perform total or partial resection of the affected part of the uterine cervix after total mobilization of the cervix and excision of the upper and middle parts of the vagina. We have performed 204 modified fertility-sparing ARTs for CC women of reproductive age (27 to 37 years) at the early stage of the disease (T1A, T1B). On average the surgery lasted 140 ± 28.7 min, blood loss was 420 ± 50 ml. Epithelization of the uterine stump after surgery lasted 5 - 8 weeks. No intra-operative injuries of the nearby organs occurred. The follow-up period has lasted for 42 months. Oncological outcomes. No patient had CC recurrence and metastasis (till 42 months after the first surgery).
Keywords: Cervical Cancer, Squamous Cells, Dynamic Monitoring, Fertility-Sparing Surgery, Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy, Quality of Life